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How we need to prepare



There are many types of emergency that can befall us, personal, familial, local, national and global. This is why we prepare, this is why we have back ups, and back ups for those back ups. Have you ever looked closely, really closely at your kit, in particular at your water filtration system? Will it actually do what you think it will do? Do you know the size of the filter in your system? Have you read the list of nasties that it will filter out? See anything missing from the list?


There are a great many viruses, and all of them will flourish if municipal water supplies fail. How fast they flourish depends on the weather, run off of untreated water into natural water courses, and how quickly humans soil the supply by indiscriminate disposal of animal and human waste.

West Nile virus, Coxsackie virus, hepatitis A, hepatitis E, adenovirus, reovirus, Calicivirus, poliomyelitis and leptospirosis all have a size of 0.09-0.1 microns, this is smaller that the 0.2 micron pore size in the best of the best filters available today. All of these will increase if municipal water treatment is no longer available.

One of these, leptospirosis, is already in a great many fresh water supplies. Any situation that puts humans in contact with fresh water increases the risk of infection. It is endemic in tropical and sub-tropical regions, but not purely due to the climate. Many of these areas are in the developing world, and as such these areas have less treated water, less refuse collection services, and no pest control systems beyond those employed by individuals. This is exactly the situation we will find ourselves in if there is any event, natural or man made, that results in a long term breakdown of the power grid, which results in water treatment plants going offline. Those currently living an off grid lifestyle, or preparing to should some kind of collapse occur, should be aware of the dangers lurking in even the most pristine looking natural water supplies.

You may know leptospirosis as Weils disease, it’s a zoonosis, that is it can cross the species barrier from animals to humans. The animals themselves are asymptomatic, they show no signs of illness or disease. Leptospirosis is spread by infected urine, and less commonly by other bodily fluids. The spiral shaped bacteria are safe when dry, but live for an extended length of time in damp and wet conditions. They can, if they have not been dry for too long, deactivate on contact with water. The prime sites for the bacteria to be found is in the water itself, alongside it on banks, under vegetation, mud, puddles and gardens where infected animals may have urinated.

A word about rodents, they are incontinent. If you have rats and mice, you have urine, it’s that simple. Although rodents are the main vector for leptospirosis all animals can carry it, including domestic pets. It gets into the body via mucosal tissue, such as the eyes or mouth, via abrasions and rarely by ingesting infected meat, though cooking well usually avoids this.

Andy Holmes the Olympic rower died of leptospirosis in October 2010, it is thought he contracted the disease whilst practicing on the river.

The World Health Orgaization monitors leptospirosis as it is a notifiable disease, most countries take part in the system, the USA does not. It removed leptospirosis from the list of notifiable diseases in late 1995 after being criticised, for failure to notify cases. It was questioned as to why a country as vast as the USA had such a low number of reported cases each year. The investigation concluded that the reporting system was flawed, and that based on land mass and fresh water volume the USA would have in the region of 10,000 cases per year. They were at the time, reporting between 58 and 70 cases per year. The report concluded that under reporting is less important than under diagnosing and that continued under diagnosis could have serious implications for the population.

Current statistics show leptospirosis is present in some 20% of the fresh water supplies on the planet. This figure will grow should water treatment, refuse removal and pest control mechanisms fail. Most of those 20% are found in countries that do not have these safeguards.

The answer then is obviously to avoid it, but sadly that is not possible. For example, the Hardjo version of the disease affects only cattle, but it is fatal to humans, it is currently kept out of the food chain by the destruction of animals found to be carrying it. Without veterinary care and excellent husbandry standards this will not be the case.

Many things increase you chance of catching leptospirosis, anything putting you into contact with fresh water, or wild animals increases your risk.

How to minimise your risk

  • stout walking boots, long trousers and long sleeves should be worn where there is a danger of scratch injuries
  • waterproof thick gloves should be worn when drawing water, be it from a well, stream or river
  • eye and mouth protection, as well as long sleeves and waterproof gloves should be worn during ANY contact with wild animals, especially so when removing them from traps, skinning or butchering them
  • thick plastic bags should be worn over foot ware when in areas contaminated by livestock waste
  • areas where children play, and wild animals/rodents have access to, should be treated with chlorinated water prior to them playing there
  • water destined for human consumption should be treated even if it has been filtered
  • domestic pets should not be allowed in food preparation areas
  • food prep area should be wiped with a chlorinated cloth before use
  • hands should be washed in chlorinated water before entering the home
  • get in the habit of not touching your eyes and mouth with you hands when out and about

The signs and symptoms of leptospirosis are varied and many. Most people, 60-65% will have a flu like illness for a week, this will be accompanied by severe headaches and possibly an occasional nosebleed. 25-30% will have a severe flu like illness accompanied by severe incapacitating headaches and nosebleeds.they may well show unexplained bruising. Some in this group will go on to develop kidney and liver function issues at a later date. 2-5% will die, having gone into kidney failure. For these people the headaches do not subside, they have frequent profuse nosebleeds and unexplained bruising on a large scale. This is due to clotting mechanism malfunctions.

Anti-biotics kill leptospirosis, the cyclines are best, but these must not be stored as they become toxic after their expiration date. Penicillin was once the treatment of choice and works well. Chlorine also kills leptospirosis, as does boiling the water before ingestion.

I have gone into detail about leptospirosis because currently it is the one we all face everytime we come into contact with untreated fresh water. Of the others, some are killed by UV, some are not, some are killed by anti-biotics, some are not, most are killed by chlorination, some are not. ALL are killed by boiling.

So, filter or not, boiling your water before drinking is still advisable. It should also be noted that some bacteria are smaller than 0.2 microns and would therefore not be removed by filtering.

Water does not have to be boiled for an extended period, this wastes time, fuel, and water in the form of steam. Raising the water to a rolling boil for one minute is enough to kill any viruses and bacteria present.

Water filtration systems have their place, and are great items to have, filtering out the vast majority of organic and inorganic impurities, just be aware of the capabilities of the system you have.

Take care

14 comments to Leptospirosis

  • Northern Raider

    Good article and its why I have a Berkfeld filter with Superser filter candles plus spares. The last major typhus epidemic was not more than 100 years ago in the UK, and such outbreaks will happen again quickly if our water systems fail.

  • Evening Northern Raider,

    Does that model have a smaller filter pore than 0.2 microns ? Hope you don’t mind me asking but the last time I checked the smallest Berkey filter was 0.2 microns. I contacted them to ask when and if they if were going to be doing a finer filter and they said yes but had no date at that point.

    Thanks in advance for any info and thanks for reading the article.

    Take care


  • Northern Raider

    Best I know is they go to 0.5 microns ?

  • Northern Raider

    PATHOGENIC ORGANISMS % Bacteria Removed E.Coli/Cholera/Shigella/
    Typhoid/Klebsiella Terrigena >99.99% >99.99% >99.99% >99.99% >99.99%
    % Cyst Removal Cryptospoidium >99.99% >99.99% >99.99% >99.99% >99.99%
    Giardia >99.999% >99.999% >99.999% >99.999% >99.999%
    TRACE ORGANICS REMOVAL Insecticides Lindane @ 0.1 ppb presence N/A NO DATA >80% >85% >85%
    Herbicides Atrizine @ 1.2 ppb presence N/A NO DATA >80% >85% >85%
    Phenols TCP @ 150 ppb presence N/A NO DATA >80% >50% >50%
    Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons PAH’s @ 0.2 ppb presence N/A NO DATA >80% >95% >95%
    Trihalomethanes Chloroform @ 150 ppb presence N/A NO DATA >66% >50% >50%
    INORGANICS REMOVAL Free Chlorine Removal 2mg cl/l challenge N/A Under gravity >95% Under pressure >50% >95%
    under gravity >97%
    NSF Class 1 std. 42 >97%
    NSF Class 1 std. 42
    Lead Removal @pH 6.5 after 2,244 ltrs N/A N/A >94%
    under gravity N/A 98.3% NSF std. 53
    @pH 8.5 after 2,244ltrs N/A N/A N/A N/A 98.3% NSF std. 53

  • Northern Raider

    Brilliant. Thanks guess what I’m going shopping for lol

    Take care


  • paul

    I used to take part in rat shoots so I came into contact with their environment on a regular basis.
    Gloves or not you’ve got to be careful especially in cow sheds because cows can give you different form of the disease i.e. The Hardjo form of leptospirosis
    I went to my GP to ask about inoculations because strangely enough the yearly jab my dog got included protection against Leptospirosis. The dumb look on his face said it all.
    No inoculations are available.
    I suggest you download and carry this card. is a leaflet you need to show a doctor (especially GP’s and A&E where English is second language).
    It might just save your life.

  • Paul

    Good idea. The Hardjo form has not yet got into the food chain or affected humans though I agree totally that there is great potential for this to happen. The good husbandry and v care available right now is a good defence, but if a collapse should occur and tha livestock care is not available I agree totally that Hardjo could become a huge problem.

    Take care and thanks for reading


  • Loodles

    Thanks Lizzie, another very useful article. This is my latest filter for my BOB, it filtres to 0.1 micron, it’s small and lightweight:

    I’m not sure but I think my other candle filtres for the BOL are 0.2, I’m going to check tomorrow.
    Thanks again 🙂

  • Hiya Loodles

    Thanks for the kind words and the info. Off to check it out.

    Take care


  • Northern Raider

    I think I should maybe spend more time looking for updated stuff…like filters, and less time writing articles. Thanks

    Take care Lizzie

  • barneyboy

    For you anything lol. Thanks for reading

    Take care


  • ib1

    I have been looking at the data for berkefelds as i’m thinking of getting one. The filter candles on their data sheet shows that the filter is 99.99% effective at filtering particles at 0.9 microns and 99.9% effective at the 0.5 – 0.8 micron range. The viruses you mentioned Lizzie are 0.02 microns, a lot smaller than that, so am i right in assuming that the berky wont filter them ? or at the very least there is no data to say they will.

    I would have thought that if they could filter particles of that small size it would be stated that they could

    Any help would be appreciated

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